School of Computing

Mr Peter Lloyd

Research Student

Photo of PB Lloyd
  • Tel:     +44 (0)1227 82 3823
  • Fax:     +44 (0)1227 762811
  • Email:
  • Room SW12
    School of Computing
    University of Kent, CT2 7NF


My publications are available from the University of Kent's Academic Repository.

Publications relevant to PhD research

  • "From Modernism to Metro Maps: Mondrian, Beck, and Salomon", Brief Encounters Vol.1, No. 1 (February 2017), DOI:
  • Vignelli: Transit Maps, published by RIT Cary Graphic Arts Press, Rochester, NY. December 2012.
  • Co-editor of Paris Mtro Style in Map and Station Design, authored by Mark Ovenden, published by Capital Transport Publishing. November 2008.

Other publications

  • "Mental Monism Considered as a Solution to the Mind-Body Problem", pp 101-145 in: Mind and its Place in the World: Non-Reductionist Approaches to the Ontology of Consciousness, edited by Alexander Batthyany and Avshalom Elitzur, published by Ontos Verlag, Frankfurt. December 2005.
  • "Glitches in the Matrix", pp 103-124 in: Taking the Red Pill: Science, Philosophy and Religion in the The Matrix, edited by Glenn Yeffeth, published by BenBella Books, April 2003.

PhD Project Summary

Automated Design of Metro Maps

This project seeks to improve our understanding of the design principles for metro maps - by carrying out empirical studies, by developing theoretical models of metro maps and how they are cognised, and by developing computer software to generate experimental maps.

The layout of metro maps is distinctively different from the more general problem of laying out abstract diagrams. This is because a metro map is not purely abstract but must have a subjectively acceptable degree of copliance with geographical reality. A diagram that shows just the topology of stations and lines of any non-trivial metro network is effectively useless for real-life passengers to find their way around. To be practicable, the metro map must (more or less) preserve the cardinal directions of stations, and (to some degree) preserve relative distances. Although subjective, these conditions are crucial and must be added to the somewhat more objective problem of implementing the framework of design rules (minimising visual noise in its many forms).

An initial is being carried out on the effect of the colour-coding scheme of the New York City subway map on the usability of the map, as measured by the speed and accuracy with which subjects carry out navigation tasks. When the study is completed, the results will be released here.

Research Interests

I am a member of the following research groups:

School of Computing, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NF

Enquiries: +44 (0)1227 824180 or contact us.

Last Updated: 16/06/2019