Examples of Formal Methods Elsewhere

Examples of Formal Methods Elsewhere

Compiled by Howard Bowman

One of our intentions is to keep an up to date list of non-traditional applications of formal methods that we are aware of. The following list serves this purpose by listing applications according to the following topics:

If you know of an application of FM that you think could be added to this list please notify Howard Bowman.






(non-standard) Computing

Formal Methods in HCI

The use of formal methods in modelling and analysing human computer interfaces (see, for example, this page, this page and this page, which also contain many relevant links) is now a sufficiently accepted area of research that it is now only loosely a "non-standard" application of formal methods. However, we include it here because there are many interesting, exciting and novel applications of formal methods that can broadly be placed under the HCI banner.

Modelling Business Processes

Hussein Zedan et al, at the Software Technology Research Laboratory at the University of De Montfort are working on modelling business processes using modal action logics and interval temporal logics.

Non-standard LOTOS

A list of non-traditional applications of the LOTOS formal method can be found on this page.

Medical Systesm

There is work on using Z to design radiotherapy machines, see, for example, this page, which is a rather original class of satefy critical system.

Humanities and Social Sciences

Cognitive Science

There has been work on formally describing cognitive models and architectures. This typically arises out of HCI usability analysis work.


Roger Jones discusses how formal methods can influence philosophy on the following page.. For example, he models the Triple-Dichotomy on this page. In a sense, this completes a circle, since the mathematics underlying formal methods is typically logic and set theory and these had their origin in mathematical philosophy.

Creative Arts and Entertainment


Modeling narrative

Games and Generic Rule Systems

Official Documents, Procedures and Manuals

Last modified December 1999.
Contact Howard Bowman if you have problems or comments.